Saturday, December 21, 2013

Stress And Depression - Youth Problem In Dealing With Mental Health Issues

Once upon a time being young and at the prime of teen life means fun at the diner, lovers holding hands, and hanging out with friends. This time, it seems that being young means stress, stress and more stress. The stories that parents usually tell their kids about "the younger years" has become more than just mere history as recent study found that students are dealing with anxiety and other mental health issues.

The study, which was co authored by Jean Twenge, a San Diego State University Psychology Professor and was released last Monday January 11, says that youth seems to be struggling with anxiety and depression. This was based on a culled response to a psychological questionnaire used as far back as 1938, the era of the Great Depression.

Stress and Depression are real among today's youth and the number who has experienced this is growing. The usual causes of these mental problems are school and life in general. Stress is characterized by feelings of frustration, tension, worry and withdrawal that last for days. Depression on the other hand is characterized by more extreme feelings like hopelessness and sadness lasting more than stress as it stretches to weeks. Experts speculate that the biggest contributor to these mental issues is the influence of popular culture, which largely focuses on external factors like wealth, looks and status. The youth, nowadays, seems to concentrate on the belief that success is associated with having lots of money where in fact this is false. Finishing one's study and finding a good job is more pressuring because of the want to be "successful".

The study analyzed the responses of 77,576 high school and college students. The samples were from 1938 through 2007. Although there was an increase in the number of threshold passers in mental categories, there was also a staggering increase in those who didn't meet it. The current result may even be low considering the antidepressants that they may be taking as well. The number of student who scored high with psychopathic deviation-a trouble with authority-has increased from five percent in 1938 to 24 percent in 2007.

Anxiety is said to contribute to their stress. This may largely depend on overprotective parents who have left their kids with few real-world coping skills. Anxiety, at this point, becomes seemingly normal as they have less confidence in dealing with things.

The result to the study, conducted by Twenge and other mental health expert, will be published in the future issue of Clinical Psychology Review. Psychologists wish that this will gain adults' attention to help youth in dealing with their stress. About 88 percent of juvenile suicide is due to depression. Helping those means giving them the proper guidance that they so truly deserve- away from the influence that causes wrong belief and harm.

How Romantic Quotes and Sad Love Quotes Can Help You

Love is a many splendid thing or love sinks, depending upon which radio station you're listening to.

Really good sad love quotes can help you reflect on your emotions, and help you to build up your life again after a divorce or break up. Romantic quotes are also a good way to motivate yourself to appreciate the finer aspects of love, even if you are suffering from the sting that love can create.

Let me give you some examples of love quotes and romantic quotes.

Let's say for example that you're feeling morose because you have recently separated from a lover.

Consider this quote:

"Ever has it been that love knows not its own depth until the hour of separation."

-Kahlil Gibran

How powerful of a quote is that?

It is perhaps one of the best ways to sum up how you feel and make it more understandable to you as you experience your grief. That's the main benefit that love quotes and romantic quotes offer.

There is no doubt that it is very sad to love someone who no longer loves you. This means that you have to use all the opportunities and resources at your disposal to help you through this tough time.

Many people are surprised when I suggest reading sad love quotes and romantic quotes as a way to help lessen the burden.

But it makes sense.

Psychologists have long ago discovered that when someone is feeling sad, they go through five different stages of grief:

The first stage of grief is denial.

In this case, you deny the fact that you and your lover have separated.

The second stage is anger.

In this case you may curse your lover for being so dumb or inconsiderate.

The third stage is bargaining.

Here, you may attempt to reconcile by making a deal with your former lover to promise to behave differently or to pay them more attention.

The four stage is depression, where you are frustrated, pity yourself and you feel hopeless.

The fifth stage is acceptance - this is where you understand that things are the way that they are, and you move on.

Romantic quotes and sad love quotes help you through getting passed the depression stage and into the acceptance stage. When you're depressed, you may find it frustrating to express yourself. That's what these quotes will help you to do.

And the better you understand how you feel, the quicker you can accept the situation and move on.

Here are some more very interesting romantic quotes: 10 Most Inspiring Romantic Quotes Ever.

What Is Clinical Psychology?

Clinical psychology is a sub-field in psychology which is concerned with the evaluation and assistance of mental illness, abnormal behavior and relieving psychologically-based distress. It integrates the science of psychology, clinical knowledge, and theoretical knowledge with the treatment of complicated problems. It is one of the most popular sub-fields within psychology. Clinical psychologists are involved in program development and evaluation, teaching and supervision, research, public police, consultation and other activities such as professional practice. It will mean that they will be working with individuals, families, number of individuals collectively, institutions and organizations. Practitioners usually work within a team, for example, of medical practitioners, social workers and other health professionals.

What is clinical psychology and how does it differ from a psychiatrist?

Often clinical psychologists are compared with psychiatrists and even though they have the same fundamental goal their methods, training and outlook is quite different. The most significant difference is that psychiatrists use the medical model to assess psychological problems - meaning they see their patients as people with an illness - and prescribe medication, whereas a forensic psychologist does not. Clinical psychologists also differ from counselors and social workers, because they primarily deal with patients who have recognized problems. A clinical psychologist will treat depression, anxiety and emotional and mental disorders. The treatment of a patient usually includes the evaluation of the overall mental status of the patient and after that it will be determined which specific conditions might affect the patient. Psychoanalysis is mainly used by clinical psychologists to relieve mental distress. During these sessions the life problems of the patient will be evaluated in an environment in which he or she feels comfortable.

Clinical psychologists provide patients with methods to deal with problems such as stress, anxiety and other mental problems. Clinical psychology differs from forensic psychology in that forensic psychology provides psychological assessments in legal situations, whereas clinical psychology is the diagnosing and treatment of psychological dysfunction. A forensic psychologist has duties bound to the criminal justice system and needs to act accordingly. A clinical psychologist, on the other hand, is not helping the legal system but has the duty to help the patient. To become a practitioner of either form of psychology you need to have an accredited graduate degree from a university. A clinical psychologist will either work to obtain a Ph.D. or a PsyD. A Ph.D. is more towards the side of research, whereas a PsyD is more oriented towards the treatment of patients.

How to Deal With Depression: Eat More Good Mood Foods

In the search for how to deal with depression, many people overlook good nutrition. There are "good mood foods" which contain nutrients specially designed to work with your brain chemistry. These nutrients stimulate the release of special neurotransmitters which tell the brain to release chemicals which can make you feel better.

When they are depressed, many people attempt to improve their negative emotions by snacking on quick, surgary, salty, or fatty foods.

These "foods" may make you feel better in the short term, but can cause feelings of guilt and self-loathing in the long term. As such, these unhealthy snacks should be avoided as much as possible during the time you are trying to deal with your depression.

So if eating junk food isn't one of the ways for how to deal with depression, which foods should you eat? Well, here is a short list of foods which have been found to be healthy, as well as, helpful for easing symptoms of depression.

* Comfort Foods - These are the foods which are usually associated with our childhood which bring back feelings of being lovingly cared for. One example is macaroni and cheese.

However, if you're looking for healthy alternatives, its recommended you make this dish from scratch and avoid the boxed version, which contains high levels of salt and artificial coloring.

* Whole Grains - The reason whole grains like oatmeal, barley, bulgur, bran, and whole wheat breads are included in the "good mood foods" list is because they help regulate your blood sugar for a more even temperament.

Additionally, the high amounts of fiber contained in these grains are more slowly digested, which help keep you full and satisfied.

* Fresh Fruit - The antioxidant effects from the zinc, selenium, vitamin E, vitamin C and Vitamin A help to reduce oxidative stress in the body.

* Omega 3 Fish Oil - These fatty acids work with the brain to reduce any deficiencies which may contribute to depression and anxiety. Supplements may provide a purer source of omega 3s, since many fresh fish sources are found to be contaminated with mercury.

* Green Leafy Vegetables - Green leafy vegetables work to boost energy levels. People suffering from depression usually report their energy levels are severely diminished. Eating more green veggies supplies the body with energy-boosting minerals like manganese, iron, magnesium and potassium. Magnesium may also work to improve your mood and sharpen brain function.

* Low-Fat Dairy Products - low-fat milk, buttermilk, cottage cheese, yogurt and cheese are helpful for reducing irritability and mood swings.

* Meats - In this case, turkey is a meat which works to increase levels of serotonin in the brain by its tryptophan content. The amino acid contained in tryptophan is responsible for the increase in serotonin, resulting in an elevated mood. Other tryptophan-rich foods include bananas, pineapple, sunflower seed, spinach and tofu.

So if you are looking for ways for how to deal with depression, making improvements in your diet to include more of the foods listed above can go a long way toward easing your symptoms and making you feel better. As a bonus, your overall health will improve as well.

Using Electroconvulsive Therapy To Treat Bipolar Disorder - What Is It Really All About?

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), also known as electroshock therapy, is a controversial medical treatment that induces a seizure by passing electricity through the patient's brain. ECT was a common psychiatric treatment until the late 20th century, when it fell into disuse as better drug therapies became readily available for more psychiatric conditions. It is now reserved for severe cases of depression in such illnesses as major depression and the depression associated with bipolar disorder. It can also be used to treat a manic episode.

It is believed that ECT works by using an electrical shock to cause a seizure (a short period of irregular brain activity). ECT may be given during an inpatient stay, or just for outpatient quick treatment. ECT is given up to three times a week. Usually no more than twelve treatments are needed. Treatment is given by a psychiatrist. This seizure releases many chemicals in the brain. These chemicals, called neurotransmitters, deliver messages from one brain cell to another. The release of these chemicals makes the brain cells work better. A person's mood will improve when his or her brain cells and chemical messengers work better.

In electroconvulsive therapy, an electric current is sent through the scalp to the brain. ECT is one of the fastest ways to relieve symptoms in people who suffer from mania or severe depression. ECT is generally used as a last resort when the illness does not respond to medication or therapy. It can be used when a patient cannot take medication, such as during pregnancy. It is also used when patients pose a severe threat to themselves or others and it is dangerous to wait until medication takes effect.

Prior to an ECT treatment, the patient is given a muscle relaxant and put under general anesthesia. ECT, when done correctly, will cause the patient to have a seizure, and the muscle relaxant is given to limit the size of the episode. Electrodes are placed on the patients scalp and a finely controlled electric current is applied that causes a brief seizure in the brain. Because the muscles are relaxed, the seizure will usually be limited to slight movement of the hands and feet. Patients are carefully monitored during the treatment. The patient awakens minutes later and does not remember the treatment or events surrounding the treatment.

Side effects may result from the anesthesia, the ECT treatment or both. Temporary short-term memory loss can be one of the side effects; this memory loss usually goes away one to two weeks after treatment. Some people may have longer-lasting problems with memory after ECT. General side effects like confusion, nausea, headache, and jaw pain are also common. These side effects may last up to several days after the procedure. In extremely rare cases, ECT can cause heart attack, stroke, or death. People with certain heart problems usually are not good candidates for ECT.

While the majority of psychiatrists believe that properly administered ECT is a safe and effective treatment for some conditions, a vocal minority of psychiatrists, former patients, antipsychiatry activists, and others strongly criticize the procedure as extremely harmful to patients' subsequent mental state. In the early days of use, ECT was administered without anaesthesia or muscle relaxants. Patients were frequently injured as a side effect of the induced seizure.

ECT has been commonly misused in the past, sometimes as a punishment for patients hospitalized in mental institutions. ECT was sometimes abused by unethical mental health professionals as a means of punishing and controlling unruly or uncooperative patients. Many people came to view ECT unfavorably after negative depictions of it in several books and films. The use of ECT is still a controversial.

Post Natal Depression (PND) - Will PND Woman Harm Their Baby?

Having a baby could be a challenging life experience to most moms. One of them is PND that stands for Postnatal Depression. Following childbirth, it is common for women to experience a period of low mood. The severity can vary from a mild (baby blues), through to PND and to the most severe but very rare postnatal psychosis.

Statistically, around 10% of women will experience PND. It is a depressive illness that occurs after having a baby. In most cases, PND will generally start within 1 month after giving birth, but records also show that some moms experienced PND around six months or even within the first week after giving birth. For most women, it passes quickly; for others, professional help is needed and without treatment, it can last for months or rarely years.

So far, expert still cannot find the exact cause of PND. Postnatal depression is most common after the first pregnancy. PND women have symptoms that are similar with ordinary depression although two of them are not the same, they are lack of confidence, anxiety, negative thoughts, difficulty sleeping, feelings of being unable to cope or that life is meaningless, loss of appetite, and so on. Theses will be explained further below.

There are some factors that give a woman more chances to experience Postnatal Depression. However your doctor can work with you to reduce the risk of getting it. Those factors are:

  • If you have previous record of PND with your previous pregnancies, you are at a very high risk of experiencing it again. Pay attention to any warning signs of depression recurring. It is the first step in preventing PND in this case.

  • If you have a depression during pregnancy and being treated but then you have to stop the medication in order to avoid side effects to your fetus, you might be in a risk of getting PND. In this case, you will need to restart the depression medication process after birth to prevent PND and that would mean there is a possibility that you cannot breast feed.

  • If you experienced bipolar depression in the past, you are at a high risk getting PND. Pay attention to any warning signs and by understanding what treatments to ease the bipolar depression would be important to prevent PND in this case.

Symptoms of Postnatal Depression

PND symptoms are very similar to "ordinary" depression, such as:

  • Irritable. You might have sensitive and irritated feelings. Although mostly it happens with your partner, sometimes you can have irritated feelings with your baby too.

  • Depressed. You may frequently feel low and unhappy during the day. It can be peak at certain times of the day. For example: in the mornings when you wake up or evenings when you are about to sleep. You may have hope from some good days but then are followed by bad days which make you despair.

  • Hard to Sleep. PND women can have insomnia. No matter how tired you are, you simply can't fall asleep.

  • Can't easily enjoy anything. You will find plain life. It is hard for you to enjoy or be interested in anything.

  • Guilty. PND like ordinary depression, changes the way you think and makes you see things negatively. Feeling of guilty, useless is most common in PND women.

  • Overloaded. PND can make you feel overloaded in everything. You may feel that you have no time in doing things and organize daily routine in your life especially with your baby.

  • Anxiety. You might worry too much about your baby. You might have feared that your baby will be harmed in some way that you don't want to leave your baby alone.

PND woman have a symptom of disorder that she tends to withdraw from people including her baby. PND mother might think that she does not have good relationship with her baby. She thinks that the relationship should happen immediately within first few days or weeks after birth or it will not happen at all.

It is normal in PND and does not mean that she is a bad mother. However, once the depression has gone, the mother will be able to feel her full range of emotions and can enjoy her baby more. During this time, she just needs some help and assurance from family and friends.

So, Will PND women harm their baby?

It is very common that depressed mothers often worry that they might harm their baby. It is very normal that through tiredness and desperation, you might have feeling to hit or shake your baby. This happens to mothers and also fathers and not only to those who has PND. The fact is that most of them would never act on them. But if you do feel this, tell someone. They might help you. Your health visitor or doctor will also be able to help you with this.

However, for those who have a history of being harmed, abused, mistreated when they were young may sometimes do harm their babies (battered babies) and this case does not relate directly to PND.

Very rarely a mother with PND may harm her baby. On the other hand, mothers may kill their babies before committing suicide thinking that it is better for both of them to be dead. Fortunately it is very unusual.

Just remember that PND is treatable illness and the sooner they are treated the better it will be. Speak with your family members or professional as soon as possible.

Some tips if you have PND

The most common in PND women is they feel embarrassed, ashamed, or guilty about feeling depressed that make them reluctant to talk about their problem with somebody.

Talking about the problem with somebody, such as a health professional, can be very helpful. Most PND mother often worry that people will see them as unfit parents.

Postnatal Depression or PND can happen to any woman. You and your baby don't have to suffer and it does not mean that you are a bad mum.

Here are some useful tips:

  • Rest as much as you can. Sleep when your baby sleeps.

  • Do not give too much pressure on yourself. Do as much as you can and rest. You can ask your partner, parents, other family members or even your friends to help you out with looking after your baby, household or other things surround you.

  • Talk about how you feel to your husband, partner, family members or trusted friends. Spend time with them.

  • Talk to other mothers so you can learn from their experiences.

  • Join parent group in your local community.Try not to spend a lot of time alone. You need to leave the house sometimes. Take a short walk might help you. Research says that the sun can help reduce depression.

In some cases, anti-depressants are necessary. Although this can affect breast milk, there are drugs that are safe. Talk to your doctor or midwife.

Finally, even if you have been depressed for a while, support, counseling and medication can all help you to get better. It's never too late.

Agitated Depression - The 6 Unique Symptoms

Most people have never heard of agitated depression but it does exist. It reveals itself in a way that is indicative of its name - moods of irritability, short temper and aggravation. Often times the condition presents itself as an anger management issue as the individual will have outbursts of anger and rage.

Often times, the underlying feeling that they have is that they are misunderstood and that no one knows how they are feeling. This type of depression is a hypo-manic depression meaning they exhibit hypo-manic behavior.

Even in cases of other depressions, such as major depressive disorder, there can be levels of irritability, aggravation and agitation. However, when it comes to agitated depression, these moods are enhanced and more pronounced. Moods of irritability and agitation are just a few of the classic symptoms of agitated depression. There are many other symptoms as well and understanding them will make it easier to understand and diagnose. It's important to note that these symptoms also present themselves in cases of manic depressive disorder so sometimes diagnosing can be a bit tricky.

The assumed anger management issues also pose a problem, as professionals may wrongfully diagnose a manic depressive disorder or agitated depression and prescribe antidepressants unnecessarily. This can result in amplifying things whereby the agitation and symptoms of depression actually worsen. This also increases the thoughts and risk of suicide.

When someone has agitated depression it can be quite serious and the characteristics and symptoms can be mild in nature or become quite severe. The severity of the depression and angry outbursts really depend on the individual themselves. This type of depression is more prevalent in middle age to elderly people however it has been diagnosed in younger individuals as well.

There are a variety of symptoms that you should look out for if you suspect someone is suffering with this form of depression. Often times the person will be "antsy" and have a difficult time sitting still or staying in one place for too long. They also have serious, spontaneous mood swings where they will be calm, cool and collected on minute then have an emotional or physical outburst the next. Violent verbal outbursts are also a possibility.

Below you'll see a list of other symptoms that may present themselves as well.

  • Tearing or pulling at the clothing

  • Intense feelings and thoughts

  • Endless thoughts and movement which are essentially without base

  • Talking nearly continuously

  • Wringing of the hands

  • Violent verbal outbursts.

If you, or someone you know, are/is experiencing some or all of these symptoms then you should consider contacting a professional for a thorough evaluation and diagnosis. As with many other types of depression, agitated depression can be successfully treated. The treatment plan may include antidepressants, psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, or in severe cases admission to a depression treatment facility. Bottom line is that there is hope for anyone suffering with depression. The key is to acknowledge that there may be a problem, seek out support from a professional and embark on a successful treatment plan.

Friday, December 20, 2013

Is SSRI Treatment of Fibromyalgia My Only Option?

Five million people, most of them women, suffer with the symptoms of fibromyalgia in the U.S. Not only is it hard to diagnose, but fibromyalgia has so many other syndromes and symptoms associated with it, that treatment of the condition is problematic to say the least.

One symptom that isn't always obvious to most people including family, friends and even doctors, is fibromyalgia-depression. But to the fibromyalgia sufferer, this symptom may be one of the most serious. Normally, Selective Serotonin Re-Uptake Inhibitors or SSRI treatment of fibromyalgia is prescribed, and most doctors work with these medications, tailoring the specific drug to the needs of the patient. The dosages are usually the same as for patients with non-fibromyalgia-depression.

The problem is that SSRI treatment of fibromyalgia can have some undesirable side-effects which include: sleep problems and insomnia, anxiety reactions, headaches, sexual dysfunctions, nausea, diarrhea, loss of appetite, weight gain, and as with all antidepressants... the increased risk of suicide. Although only a small percent of patients have increased suicidal thoughts, the FDA has issued an advisory on antidepressants. They recommend careful monitoring of patients when starting SSRI's and changing dosages. With SSRI treatment of fibromyalgia, there is also a chance of the patient exhibiting a serious and rare condition called serotonin syndrome, a toxic condition requiring medical intervention.

So, What Are My Options?

There is a natural alternative to SSRI treatment of fibromyalgia. It's called 5-HTP or 5-Hydroxytryptophan, and it has fewer complications than the SSRI treatment of fibromyalgia. It has been used in the treatment of both depression and anxiety symptoms with success.

There are several reasons why 5-HTP may be safer choice for fibromyalgia sufferers...

  • 5-HTP is effective because, like SSRI treatment of fibromyalgia, it has the ability to increase the brain's natural serotonin production (a neurotransmitter produced by the brain) which promotes restful sleep, reduces anxiety and pain, and improves mood.

  • Using 5-HTP has the advantage of being discontinued if the fibromyalgia sufferer no longer needs it... without the issue of dependency.

  • A natural product, 5-HTP supplements are usually derived from the seeds of the West African Griffonia simplicifolia plant... although it's also naturally occurring in small amounts, in dairy products and some shellfish.

  • There are few side-effects to 5-HTP. Fibromyalgia sufferers using 5-HTP instead of SSRI treatment of fibromyalgia seem to be able to avoid the gastrointestinal issues, increased anxiety, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, headaches and weight gain that accompany SSRI medications.

  • Many people do very well on low doses of 5-HTP. Dosages usually begin at 50 mg but may go up to 300 mg daily if needed. The supplement should be taken with a full glass of water during or shortly before a meal to improve absorption.

Warning: Consult Your Physician...

Higher doses of 5-HTP should be broken down... don't take more than 200 mg at one time. People already taking anti-Parkinson's or prescription antidepressant medications should not take 5-HTP. Consult your physician before starting a regimen of 5-HTP or any SSRI treatment of fibromyalgia... or even herbal SSRI replacement remedies! Drug interactions, even herbs, can produce dangerous and unexpected side-effects including the triggering of fibromyalgia flares, and chemical-induced psychological issues.

Consider Adding Improved Nutrition To Your Regimen...

Scientific and medical groups including the American Medical Association advocate an improved nutritional diet to help fight illnesses of all kinds. Fibromyalgia is no exception. Pain, fatigue, depression, anxiety, mental fog, gastrointestinal issues, and even sleep disorders can benefit from lifestyle changes which include adding the right nutritional supplement to your diet. As a fibromyalgia survivor myself, I can attest to the powerful and dramatic improvements the right nutritional supplement can do to reduce and even eliminate fibromyalgia symptoms in a sufferer. To learn more about natural treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms, contact me now by clicking on one of the links below.

Managing Trust Deficit

INTRODUCTION - Phenomenon of Trust Deficit

Trust has two dimensions - human as well as non-human. At human level, trust means to believe that somebody is good, sincere, honest, responsible, etc. and will not try to harm or trick you. At non-human level, trust means to believe that something is genuine, efficient, dependable, etc. and will not work faultily.

Human personality has two facets - internal & external. At internal level, man is combination of three interdependent identities of self, i.e., body, mind, and soul. Human body is visible aspect of self. Body plays manifold crucial roles during various life activities. A reliable role of a body depends on its healthy profile. A healthy body is fit physically and responds actively. Second, human mind is invisible aspect of self. A trustworthy mind is stable combination of multiple intelligences. The prominent intelligences are perceptual intelligences, emotional intelligences, and intentional intelligences. A stable mind is reflective, sensitive, and constructive. Finally, human soul is spiritual aspect of self. An upright soul is shaped through proper satisfaction of naturally ingrained spiritual urges. The prominent spiritual urges are religious, aesthetic, and ethical. A balanced, moderate, and enlightened approach towards multiple spiritual urges forms a trustworthy soul. A trustworthy soul is intuitive, creative, and cautious. At internal level, a shared collaboration among body needs, psychological desires, and soul urges figures out a dependable personality. At external level, man is linked with animate and inanimate objects of universe. Structurally, external human links are twofold. They are natural as well as voluntary. For example, a link between parents and children is natural, while a link between husband and wife is voluntary. These links may become inactive on account of multiple reasons. However, one thing plays a cementing role; it is common purpose or vision among interlinked persons/groups. A shared purpose gives strength to human links. A shared purpose/vision thus develops reliable natural or voluntary links among individuals or groups. Purpose sharing is developed slowly and gradually through intentional efforts. A stable presence of shared purpose/vision among individuals indicates viable external link or collective networking of an individual. There is significant correlation between internal and external aspects of self. Developing trustworthiness on internal anatomy of self is critical in creating trustworthiness at external level. Trust deficit indicates a situation of conflict at internal level or absence of shared vision at external level. It is noteworthy that the stability on external linkages is dominantly outcome of internal stability. For example, a doubt-driven person internally would have skeptical or fragile links with related people.

Human life-pattern is combination of independent and interactive life activities. The independent activities shape isolated/private life-pattern. On the other hand, the interactive activities shape collective/public life-pattern. At interactive level, we are linked with each other either socially or economically or politically. Conceptually, the interactive links get strength from common purpose or vision, while practically the interactive links get strength from costs-benefits. A common vision or costs-benefits approach inevitably follows some values, so that, the collective links are fortified on account of interactive values. For example, a social link is dependable on account of social commitments of concerned persons; an economic link is reliable on account of fair dealings among economic agents, and finally a political link is credible on account of flexibility level of political class towards conflicting political pressures. Trust deficit indicates a situation of doubt or reluctance between individuals/groups. The uncertainty or mistrust arises due to absence of some commonly accepted rules or standards.

ABSOLUTE BASES OF TRUST - Individual and Collective

Individually, the absolute strength of a trusty person is consistent mindset and persistent behavior. A Consistent Mindset is stable combination of mind powers. Naturally, human mind has three mind powers - perceptual, emotional, and intentional. A consistent mindset manifests reliable conceptual approach towards self and others. A consistent mindset is positive, so that it is trustworthy. Occasionally, a consistent mindset may think cunningly under Devil-Desire Framework but commonly it works sincerely. At behavioral level, human conduct is outcome of some personality traits. The prominent personality traits are faith, knowledge, wisdom, and manners. Faith and knowledge are basic traits while wisdom and manners are derivative traits. A stable combination of personality traits leads towards persistent behavior. A persistent behavior is trustworthy, individually and collectively. Occasionally, a persistent person may act/react wrongly due to conflicting and contradictory demands of self and others. The situation is not lasting due to recurring pressure of persistent personality traits so that stability is restored, ultimately.

Collectively, human links follows inevitably some moral principles. The prominent moral principles for smooth collective life are justice, merit, impartiality, and equality during collective interactions. The very existence of moral principles or values gives longevity and permanence to collective life. It is noteworthy that values are standard measures to maintain smooth level of interaction among people. Although a value can be utilized to exploit someone, but misuse of value cannot be a permanent feature of interactive life. So that a trusty link is decisively value-driven, while an unreliable interaction is outcome of valueless attitude. The absolute basis of trustworthy interaction is thus practical existence of values or matter-of-fact ethical code.


Trust is damaged on two grounds - ethical and non ethical. At ethical level, it is cheating that disturbs trust level. At non ethical level, it is non fulfillment of expectations that damages trust. Trust deficit due to cheating is overt reason of mistrust while the non-fulfillment of expectation is covert reason of mistrust. Mistrust does not mean complete termination of linkages rather it specifies the extent or scope of interaction. It is level of cheating or area of expectations that determines extent of trust deficit among individuals/groups. Cheating is either planned or unplanned. A planned cheating is intentional, lustful, and dreadful. It demands a categorical stance towards interaction. On the other hand, an unplanned cheating is unintentional, nave, and momentary, it demands cautious attitude during interaction. Expectations are essential aspect of interactive life. Expectations are rational or optimist and irrational or pessimist. During manifold human interactions, the invisible expectations towards one another plays an important or decisive role. A positive expectation towards someone creates better interactive environ, while a negative expectation may lead towards hostile environ. Rational expectations are information-based, intellect-driven, and hope-oriented. An expectation becomes rational through due process of time. Moreover, a trust is not developed on irrational expectations. Generally, a trust based on some irrational expectations is shattered quickly on account of shaky foundation of irrational expectations. A proper fulfillment of expectations enhances trust level while non fulfillment of expectations leads towards mistrust among individuals/groups. It is noteworthy that rational expectation remains positive/optimist towards someone unless some factual information/rational analysis suggest an opposite guideline on expectations.


Trust is created / improved through countless actions; however, the prominent steps are honoring commitment, giving sacrifices at the time of hardships, and to show integrity on varied life challenges. However, a stable trust may also disturb due to manifold reasons such as conspiracy, miscommunication, and miscalculation. A common reference is used to maintain trustworthy linkages. A common reference is either visible or invisible; it may be common purpose of life, shared vision, common friend, common enemy, etc. A conspiracy against time-honored trust is possible activity of interactive life. Conspiracy is either temporal or spatial. At temporal level, interactive timing is manipulated to convey a wrong message about someone/something. On the other hand, at spatial level, interactive environ is maneuvered to draw a wrong conclusion about someone/ something. A disturbed trust level is restored through setting frame of reference for interaction. A value-driven time-space framework of interaction is inevitable to restore normalcy among linkages. A genuinely created trust account is used during some odd situations or crises. An active presence of trust account avoids reactionary behavior, misinterpretation, and wrong expectations; rather an established trust account shapes proactive behavior, effective communication, and rational expectations.

Trust level among individuals/groups is changing phenomenon. It decreases as swell as increases on account of some supportive factors. These factors are not foundational during trust creation but they affect performance of individuals/groups during interaction. They change trust level silently and secretly. Specifically, trust level is increased on account of responsibility, pro-active behavior, discipline, and courtesy towards each other. On the other hand trust level is lessened on account of volatility, inactive/reactive behavior, indiscipline, and discourtesy towards one another.


Human interaction is dominantly trust-oriented interaction. At social level, a link between husband and wife is trust-based. Whenever, the basic pillar is affected the entire family life become a deplorable social crisis. At economic level, a link among economic agents is trust-based, whenever, the trust is shattered due to exploitative steps of an economic agent the whole economic struggle converts into mess or opportunism. At political level, a link between leader and follower is essentially trust driven, whenever, the trust is damaged or mistrust become rule of the land the whole political environ presents picture of plundering, chaos, and turmoil. A trust crisis generates countless interactive crises. Absence of trust leads towards misinterpretation of situation or events. Communication between individuals touches her lowest ebb. A communication gap widens exponentially. People develop newer or minor circle for interaction. A minor circle means micromanagement of linkages. Obviously, the countless benefits of associational environment are lost due to micro-circles/micro-management. The process of crisis generation remains active till root cause is not settled amicably/wisely.


Life is heavily indebted to countless professions or professionals. A professional is engineer, doctor, lawyer, accountant, manager, etc. A professional makes multiple life tasks easier. A really good professional does not harm someone intentionally. A layman of a field depends inevitably on a professional for multiple tasks of a specific field. A person cannot be manipulated indefinitely so that an unreliable professional is failed in her professional carrier, sooner or later. A recurring mistrust between layman client and professional is counter-productive for both. A shaky link is broken, ultimately. It is responsibility of professional, dominantly and decisively, to shape a productive link with her clients. A professional may convince the client about certain intricate aspects of work. Generally, a professional is unable to convert the professional jargon into layman language easily understandable for client. The solution lies in to utilize a common reference or some standard practices for trust building. For example, a warranty or guarantee method can be applied to satisfy someone or a user manual can be given with work/product.


The cornerstone of leadership phenomenon is to achieve trust of followers. Mistrust between leader and follower is common experience of institutional life. A trust deficit between leader and follower turns the institutional phenomenon into disaster. Market survey proves that more than 50 percent of employees simply don't believe the information or intention they receive from top management. At institutional level, mistrust once created manifests three traits:

1. It is auto-generating,

2. It is infectious, i.e., behaves like a virus, &

3. It is resistant to change.

Firstly, mistrust at institutional level is perpetual phenomenon so that it multiplies overtime and increases more mistrust. A concerted effort is required to avoid self-generation of mistrust among institutional stakeholders.

Secondly, institutions are initiated to actualize some common goals of interdependent individuals. Teamwork is vital for institutional development. Presence of mistrust means infected teamwork.

Thirdly, change is inevitable aspect of institutional life. During change the affected persons think beyond worst / best, so that mistrust means no change or extreme resistance to change or haphazard effort towards change.

Dr. Covey nicely concluded that an institution encounters four vicious circles during her developmental journey - non-acceptance of innovative idea, ineffective leadership towards actualization of idea, mismanagement during idea implementation, and resistance to change/innovation. The common element of every vicious circle is mistrust. At idea level, it is doubt or hesitation of intellectual or originator of idea. At leadership level, it is lack of trust of leader on her leadership credential. An ineffective leadership is unable to actualize the idea. At management level, it is absence of reliable managerial practices or presence of managerial corruption that kills successful implementation of idea. At change level, it is infected teamwork based on mistrust that shapes crises or avoid change.

Mistrust is not unidirectional episode rather it is circular phenomenon. A leader is trapped on account of duplicity of follower, while a follower is fascinated due to glowing maneuverings of leader. An objective and value based approach towards management system / individual growth is effective solution towards institutional mistrust.

Depression - Recommendations For Sexual Side Effects by Antidepressants

Sexual side effects caused by antidepressants are completely recognized, but this represents a practical problem of managing to physicians. Erectile dysfunction, diminished libido and delayed/attenuated or absent orgasm (dysorgasmia or anorgasmia) are the most common sexual side effects reported because of antidepressant treatment.

However, sexual side effects caused by antidepressants are also a very challenge to clinicians, since they have to distinguish between sexual dysfunction (SD) associated with depression, treatment-emergent SD and pre-existing SD exacerbated by treatment.

Making the difference between these situations is quite important, since treatment strategies are not the same for the above mentioned SDs. Sexual dysfunction associated with depression may be treated raising the antidepressant dose, however, this would be particularly inappropriate for a treatment-emergent SD, in which case the appropriate thing is to lower the dose.

For managing appropriately antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction, experts recommend that clinicians may attempt to alleviate the sexual side effects of a drug though a reduction of the dose and/or a change to an alternative therapy that may be less likely to cause sexual side effects. These strategies are more likely to be used in patients who are not responding fully to treatment and also risk sacrificing the therapeutic benefit of treatment.

Nonpharmacologic interventions are also recommended by experts. Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral techniques employed by sex therapists are the most common, although there are no studies evaluating their success in patients taking antidepressants.

There exist a number of medications quite useful in the treatment of sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressants. Under experts' opinion, the most common medications for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction fall into three categories:

Dopaminergic agents, such as amantadine and pramipexole.

a2-adrenergic receptor antagonists such as yohimbine.

Serotonin 5-HT2 or 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, including granisetron, nefazodone and cyproheptadine.

Depression in Black Men

Depression is a disorder that is treatable. That is an important thing to keep in mind. People can bounce back from it. One of the biggest issues with depression is the lack of talking about it. Around 16 million people deal with depression in America. Studies suggest that an equal percentage - 12 percent - of black males and white males suffer from depression. The real difference is in treatment. Fewer blacks are being treated. While only one-third of all Americans with a mental illness receive care, less than half that number of African-Americans receive mental health treatment.

Depression can bring on feelings of worthlessness, sadness and hopelessness that tends a way to get clogged his brain. Some think, in comparison, death seems soothing.

Men who suffer from depression may think suicide is the answer. It is not. Men that become suicidal don't realise that they are repeating the cycle, burdening their children with the same loneliness the father had endured. Their kids would grow up with the knowledge that their father had taken his life. Depression can be very paralyzing to African Americans.

This vile illness affects men from all walks of life, and as I've said before depression strikes everyone - from the black executive to the young street hustler. In many documented cases, several socially advanced black men suffered from depression for many year and refused to receive treatment. There is a very disturbing undercurrent: If an accomplished, highly informed black man refused to seek treatment for depression, how difficult is it for uneducated or poor black men to seek help?

As we come to the end of Black History Month, some mental health experts who work with black males suggest that these questions deserve greater study and discussion.

Some experts believe that depression is likely a key factor in a 233 percent increase in suicide in black males ages 10-14 from 1980 to 1995.

"Black men feel that they have to be twice as good as other people, that you can't be weak because other people will take advantage of you," said Dr. David Satcher, former U.S. surgeon general in a phone interview last week. Satcher oversaw the 1999 surgeon general's report on mental health in the United States. "Those [pressures] work powerfully against a black male seeking treatment for depression and other mental illnesses."

And about one in four African-Americans is uninsured, compared with about 16 percent of the U.S. population overall. African-Americans are less likely to receive antidepressants, and when they do, they are more likely than whites to stop taking them.

Particularly troubling to those who study and treat mental illness in black men is their disproportionately higher rates of incarceration than other racial groups. Nearly half the male U.S. prison population is black, and about 40 percent of those in the juvenile justice system are black. About 12 percent of the U.S. population is black.

It's a very difficult and very serious situation for these young men and for society. Psychiatrists who work with Atlanta's homeless and black youth said they see dozens of black males each year head to jail or juvenile justice when they should be in treatment centers. They blame in some form or another, depression.

"It happens all the time, and it's very alarming," said Dr. Raymond J. Kotwicki, medical director of community outreach programs, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, at Emory University School of Medicine.

While all mental illnesses come wrapped in stigma, mental illnesses in black men are even more entangled. Historical racism and current cultural biases and expectations all play a part, mental health advocates said.

Nearly two-thirds of African-Americans believe mental illness is a shortcoming that can be overcome through prayer and faith, according to a studyby the National Alliance for the Mentally Il.

The neglect of emotional disorders among men in the black community is nothing less than racial suicide. Many experts argues that the problem of depression in black America can be traced back to the time of slavery, when it was believed that blacks were unable to feel inner pain because they had no psyche. This myth has damaged generations of African American men and their families, creating a society that blames black men for being violent and aggressive without considering that depression might be a root cause

If you have any thoughts on the subject, I'd love to hear them.

5 Ways To Test For Candida In Men

The best way to know if you are infected would be through some simple tests for Candida and thrush. Men are often unaware of the various symptoms of yeast infection and are therefore reluctant to test for it. There are various reasons why men develop the infection and a simple test, which will determine its existence, will make it easier to get treated appropriately.

Candida infection in men can be determined by various laboratory tests, which will usually be performed based on the recommendations of a doctor. Here is a list of some of the tests, which are done to determine the infection correctly.

• skin tests
• blood tests
• muscle testing
• radionics
• stool analysis

Apart from the laboratory tests there are also some home tests available. The spit test is one of the most popular and common tests done to determine the infection. If you are wondering what a spit test is, you can find more about this simple home test, as well as a comprehensive questionnaire test (which is actually regarded as one of the most thorough ways of determining the likelihood of having candida) at bottom of this article.

Why is it necessary to do the test, if you do not have any clear visible signs of the infection? Certain people don't even show any signs even though they have the infection, and some people are more prone to infection than others, so a simple test will help you find out if you are infected at the earliest possible stages, making the treatment options easy and simple.

There are quite often times when you might be infected yet you would not be able to see any visible symptoms. Here is a list of questions, which will help you determine whether you need to go for a yeast infection test.

• Do you have chronic rashes?
• Do your joints and muscles suffer from aches and pains?
• Are you diabetic?
• Do you have low immunity?
• Do you like foods which are rich in carbohydrates and sugar?
• Are you feeling fatigued and tired regularly?
• Do you have an itching or burning sensation on the skin or while urinating?
• Are you experiencing mood swings and depression?
• Are you suffering from constipation and other digestive disorders?
• Has sex become painful?
• Have you lost your sex drive?
• Do you suffer from headaches and migraines?
• Do you have problems with your memory and concentration?

If you have answered yes to either a few or most of these questions, you could be suffering from a candida infection or thrush. Men in these cases should consider proper tests that would help in diagnosing it as early as possible. Early detection can lead to simple and early treatment.

Borderline Personality Disorder Test

Borderline Personality Disorder known as BPD is a type of mental illness which is considered to be quite serious. It is characterized by instability in behavior, moods, interpersonal relations and self-image. Family and work life, long term planning and awareness of one's individual identity is usually affected by this instability. People with BPD often find it difficult to regulate their emotions. Though this disorder is not as popular as bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, it does affect 2 percent of the adult population, mainly young women. The rate of self-harm without having the intention of suicide is high in such cases. In some cases patients suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder also tend to commit suicide. Among patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems, patients with BPD make 20 percent. Over time many improve with help and are able to lead useful lives eventually.

While people suffering from bipolar disorder or depression tend to display continued state of mood for a longer period, people suffering from BPD may undergo severe outbreaks of anger, anxiety and depression lasting for a few hours or maximum a day. These may have associations with series of aggression which is impulsive, such as alcohol or drug abuse and injury to self. Lack of self esteem is also common amongst patients suffering from BPD. They may feel mistreated unfairly, empty, or even bored at times. These symptoms are most severe when people having Borderline Personality Disorder feel that they do not have social support and are isolated.

The social relationships of people having BPD have highly unstable patterns. There is a change in their attitude towards their friends, family and loved ones, from love and great admiration to dislike and intense anger. BPD often appears with other psychiatric problems such as bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, depression, substance abuse, and other disorders. BPD is caused by the abnormal functioning of the Lymbic area of the brain controlling emotions. It may involve neurotransmitters such as dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.

A borderline personality disorder test is an evaluation used for diagnosing borderline personality disorder. A mental health professional administers the borderline personality disorder test. The test usually comprises of a series of questions or statements which the patient has to answer accordingly. If five or more symptoms are identified through the patient's answers then the diagnosis follow accordingly.

Some of the questions covered in the test are check for reactions to abandonment, relationship issues, instability, questions pertaining to self esteem and self image, questions that try to find out more about the self destructive behavior of the individual or patient, questions on suicidal thoughts and behavior, or self injurious behavior, questions pertaining to feelings, especially feelings of emptiness and difficulty in controlling emotions especially anger and ones revolving around paranoia and loss of reality.

There are a number of websites having border personality disorder test which can help you determine whether someone you care about may have the symptoms of BPD. Once you have administered the test you can then discuss the results with a mental health professional to help with diagnosis and treatment of BPD. The causes, symptoms, signs are generally covered by the borderline personality disorder test. Treatment along with the steps you can take by yourself to fight this condition should be recommended by qualified doctors only.

There have been improvements in the treatments for BPD in the past few years. Individual and group psychotherapy have produced positive results for many patients. A new treatment termed dialectical behavior therapy known as DBT, is a psychosocial treatment that is usually recommended for BPD and seems to be promising. Depending on the specific symptoms the patient has, medications may be prescribed.

Thursday, December 19, 2013

Do You Want to Comprehend Sugar Addiction Symptoms?

Understanding the concept of sugar addiction symptoms

A possible definition may be: the impossibility for a person to resist to the sweet foods or beverages temptation. People suffering from this condition find impossible to stay without sugar for too long: usually a day, a meal sometimes even an hour. Many times people don't realize they are suffering from it as the symptoms can be mistaken for seasonal affect disorder, general tiredness, dieting "issues," or depression. Controlling addiction can be difficult when you don't know it affects you. When you became aware of the existence of the sugar addiction symptoms you can easily manage the health risks and overcome the problem.

What are the sugar addiction symptoms?

Some general signs you need to know are:

  • a strong drive to eat sugar when you are depressed: when you feel upset or stressed you automatically turn to sugar for comfort.

  • obsession with sugar or sugary food: no matter where you are - working at office, walking in the park, partying with your friends - your thoughts are constantly stolen by sugar or sweet food.

  • sugar triggered defensive mechanism: you don't want to be told about not eating sugar. You don't want people criticize your addiction. The slightest comment about eating sugar or sugar addiction symptoms upsets you and generates defensive reactions.

  • energy depleted body: when sweet foods become a habit you start to rely more on these than on your natural energy resources of your body. Hence you feel weak, lethargic and depressed.

  • sugar habits: this is when you eat sugar or sugar food at about the same time each morning, afternoon, evening or even night. When you skip the "sugar" hour you find yourself very anxious or depressed.

  • sugar snacks when you are bored: when you are in a boring situation you grab a high-sugar snack to keep you occupied. This is one of the most important sugar addiction symptoms.

Thinking about the consequences and some tips

When this addiction is not discovered and diagnosed at the right time, the consequences are severe: hyperglycemia, type 2 diabetes, pancreatic problems, high cholesterol levels, hypertension obesity, anxiety and arthritis. There are behavioral consequences as well: hyperactivity, aggression, anti-social behavior.

Overcoming sugar addiction is not so difficult, but you need determination. Firstly, you have to accept that you are suffering from sugar addiction. Recognizing the problem means having won half the battle. Then you need to break the addiction. Eliminate sugar from your diet. Here are some tips you need to know when you discover sugar addiction symptoms in your life:

1. Avoid salt foods. They induce sugar cravings.

2. Eat more fruit and vegetables. There are sweet vegetables, too.

4. Buy smart: Read the labels on the foods you buy.

5. Eat whole grains. They contain complex carbohydrates (millet, barley, brown rice).

6. Ice-cream fans: eat only ice-cream that is reach in healthy ingredients and not high flavored, high sugar ice-cream.

7. Don't give up sugar: the only thing you'll get is a powerful crave.

8. High protein breakfast: in the morning eat high protein foods.

This is nice but where to seek help when you discover sugar addiction symptoms in your life?

Where to find help?

There are different levels of help. Some need just a helping hand from their friends. Others may need treatment in a sugar issues center. You may join an online support group. This may help some people. A new idea is hypnosis. Suggestions and sugar related hypnosis sessions work for a lot of people. Carefully devised exercises that stimulate metabolism offer another, more natural alternative. The will is extremely important. Be determined to win the battle. When there's a will, there's always a way. When things don't go as planned and the sugar addiction symptoms don't go away, don't hesitate to seek professional treatment.

Importance of Marijuana Testing at Home

Marijuana is the most commonly used drug in in the world. Many people, in particular, youth are getting addicted to Marijuana due to several reasons. One of the main reasons is peer pressure. They may also try and get addicted to it after seeing their siblings, relatives or parents using it. Marijuana addiction leads to many serious health effects. It also destroys the personal, professional, social and economic status of the user.

Marijuana drug testing is conducted at workplaces, schools, medical institutions, government offices and so on. Though some parents have started using drug testing kits at homes these days to check if their children are abusing Marijuana, many are not. Here we will discuss about the importance of conducting Marijuana testing at home.

Marijuana-Commonly Abused Drug
Among many illicit drugs, Marijuana is the most common illegal drug used in the United States. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) revealed that there were 16.7 million Marijuana users in 2009. The drug is obtained from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active component of the drug.

Effects of Ignoring Marijuana Suspects
Marijuana when consumed at low doses gives a feeling of euphoria and well-being. However, many problems are associated with Marijuana intoxication. These include impaired coordination, difficulty in thinking and problem-solving, distorted perceptions, and many others. Learning and memory skills are greatly affected by the drug addiction.

If you suspect that one of your family members is abusing Marijuana and ignore him/her, the consequences can be lethal. The drug when used at high dosage causes paranoia, tachycardia and delusions. Increased rates of anxiety, schizophrenia, and depression are associated with chronic Marijuana usage. Long-term usage of the drug can disturb functioning of vital organs of the body including heart, brain, lungs, liver, and kidneys. It is therefore necessary to conduct Marijuana testing at home regularly to identify the drug abusing family members.

Home drug test kits
Home drug test kits are generally used by parents to check drug addiction among their kids. Different types of kits including saliva test, urine test, and hair test are available in the market to assist home drug test to detect Marijuana. Urine tests are commonly used as they are inexpensive. Today, saliva test kits are becoming popular among households as they are non-invasive. Home drug testing is confidential, accurate, easy to use, and cost-effective.

You can check for Marijuana addiction or abuse at the comforts of your home. There will be no issues such as exploitation of donor (or suspects) privacy. Home drug testing kits save a lot of time involved in commuting too. You need to take the suspect all the way to laboratory, make him/her give sample and wait for days to get results.

Marijuana testing at home with the help of drug testing kits provides quick and accurate results. You need not go to laboratory to get accurate results. The kits approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) give 98% accurate results.

Easy to use
The most important benefit of home drug test kits is that they are easy to use. Anyone can handle and use them. There is no need to take any special training to use the kits. They include a single step qualitative analysis, which provides you results within minutes. The results thus obtained are easy to read and understand.

They are generally available in affordable prices unlike laboratory tests, where you need to spend huge amounts. Urine test kits costs less than 2 dollars.

Though there are many companies offering home test kits to detect Marijuana abuse, it is always better for you to approach a reputed company which offers FDA approved ones.

Meat - Your Key to Attacking Anxiety and Depression

There is no question that vegetarianism is a noble and worthwhile cause. That said, if your car requires gasoline to run, you would never dream of trying to put water in the gas tank. In a similar way, when you do not give your body the proper balance of foods, it simply will not run correctly. Oddly enough, meat deprivation can easily lead to all kinds of mental and emotional problems. Therefore, you may be surprised to find that attacking anxiety and depression may be as simple as eating more beef, or other meat that includes a full range of meat protein.

During the process of attacking anxiety and depression, you need to find out what your body requires in order to function properly. This includes finding out which proteins and other nutrients are required in order to produce hormones and other chemicals that make you feel better. No matter how bad you may feel about eating meat, you may be one of those people that simply needs to rely on a source of meat protein in order to have a normal sense of well being. Today, you don't have to buy meats that come from commercial farms, let alone the oceans. In fact, you may be able o find several small farms right in your area that sell meat from free ranging animals.

While you are attacking anxiety and depression, you have an opportunity to improve many aspects of your health. Are you anemic, or always tired? These may not be just symptoms of an emotional problem. Instead, they may be key indicators that you are not eating the right foods. Even though you may find it difficult to eat certain foods, you should do what you can to make sure that you listen to what your body needs, instead of what others try to tell you it needs.

Coping Mechanisms For Depression

Depression can be a source of a more serious emotional and psychological illness if you cannot manage it. At some point, if a depressed person cannot cope with his/her feeling of depression, they tend to build their own world and end up ending their own life. At another point, a depressed person does not have any ability to differentiate right from wrong. If they are into something, they think that it is the best thing to do.

If you are into depression a lot, you should have what we call coping mechanisms. You should not let depression go over you and totally invade your personal being. Here are some of the coping mechanisms that you can have to cope with your depressed feeling.

You should know the causes and reasons why people get depressed. To make sure that you understand these causes, you do a self-research. Based on what you have researched, reflect with your own self. Does it apply to you? Do you have the same causes as well? If so, then you have to try following the coping styles. It might also work for you.

You have to make sure that you have enough sleep every night. Sometimes, the depressed feeling is fueled by the lack of sleep and rest. By making sure you get six to eight hours of sleep every day, you will start your day with feeling light and fruitful.

Do simple exercises even if you are only at home. You can stretch jog, breast walk, or any exercise that will keep you fit. At the same time, you are allowing yourself to be busy with physical activities to keep thinking about what is getting you depressed. At some point, exercise is a god thing to d since aside from the fact that you can keep yourself fit, you can avoiding thinking of the things that can get you into depression.

Do some kind of recreation. Keep yourself busy. Watch your favorite movie, read a book, or do mind games. These activities will keep your ind and body at work. You also have to make sure that you plan your activities for the day so that you have less time to think about unworthy experiences and emotional stresses that might lead you to being depressed. You also have to do time management.

Talk to friends. Do not linger on the thoughts that will end up with self-pity. Once you vent it out, you will surely feel lighter than keeping it. Never compare yourself with others since you are a unique person. You have to think that you have what others don't have. Do not be afraid to seek counseling or visit a doctor if the depression gets worst. Well, you have to try to at least get an advice from the experts on the proper handling of depression.

You will be successful in dealing with the depression feeling if you have the will and determination to cope with it. No one can help you more than yourself. All of us have the tendency to get depressed. However, it is up to us on how to manage or cope with it.

Depression in Teenagers - Now What Can We Do?

No doubt you have seen the recent news headlines about a federal panel that recommended to the FDA that anti-depressant medications carry the strongest possible warning label for use in children and teenagers. This recommendation to the FDA shook the medical community, especially those who work with depressed young people. The biggest problem from the treatment community's point of view was not the recommendation for the warning label, but the way that the media portrayed the panel's recommendation. The panel reported that 2% to 4% of children and teens who were given anti-depressants for the treatment of depression became suicidal, that is they had suicidal thoughts, or made suicidal attempts of one kind or another. None of the 4,000 children and teens studied committed suicide. What the media did not report well is the fact that 15% of children and teens with depression who receive no treatment will commit suicide. These 15% will not just think about it, but will actually kill themselves. So what are we to do? If the media had their way it seems that no teens with depression would receive anti-depressants. As a result the suicide rate for those who could be using the medication would rise from nearly zero percent to about fifteen percent. But at least we wouldn't have to be concerned about evil medications. Look, I understand that there actually are young people, even adults, who have become suicidal only after beginning treatment with an anti-depressant. Some have in fact gone on to take their own lives. This is absolutely tragic. But so is the fact that untreated depression is potentially a fatal disease. Fifteen out of one hundred young people with depression take their own lives. They should be allowed to receive a treatment that will lower the suicide rate dramatically, and without any stigma attached to it by the media. Recently we had a patient brought to our counseling center named John (not his real name). John was rebellious, angry, withdrawn, and in trouble often, and yet he was diagnosed and treated for depression. When we think of someone who is depressed, we usually picture a sad, tearful, lonesome person. But teenagers with depression don't look like adults with depression. Current studies show that there are about as many teenagers who are depressed as there are adults that are depressed. However, depression is exhibited far differently by teenagers than by adults. Teenagers do not commonly display gloom, self-depreciation, or talk about feeling hopeless like adults do. Teenagers with Major Depression are described in diagnostic manuals as often becoming negative and antisocial. Feelings of wanting to leave home, or of not being understoodand approved of increase. The teen often changes, and becomes more restless, grouchy, or aggressive. A reluctance to cooperate in family ventures, and withdrawal from social activities, with retreat to one's room are frequent. School difficulties are likely as concentration is affected. Sometimes there is inattention to personal appearance and increased emotionality. Often there is an increased sensitivity to rejection in love relationships as well. Teenage boys will often become aggressive, agitated, and get into trouble at home, at school, or with the law. Teenage girls will sometimes become preoccupied with themes of death or dying, and become decreasing concerned about how they look. Suicidal thoughts are common. Some studies suggest that 500,000 teens attempt suicide each year, and 5000 are successful. Increased use of alcohol or other drugs is common, along with other forms of "self-destructive behaviors." Poor self-esteem is common with teenagers, but especially with those who are depressed. Parents are often confused and frustrated when their teens begin to act like this. Sometimes parents become stern disciplinarians, or even put the teen down, which only serves to increase feelings of guilt and depression. Other times, parents feel helpless, and stand by waiting for adulthood to arrive. Of course neither course is the right one to take. If you know of a teen whose behaviors have changed to look like what has been described above, let the parents know that there is help available, and encourage the family to seek help from a professional. With proper diagnosis and treatment a depressed teen, or adult, can be greatly helped. If someone close to you is suffering from depression, first please understand that depression is a very emotionally painful condition. For some people with depression it turns into a "terminal illness" due to suicide. Please take the situation seriously. 1) Get a medical evaluation. Symptoms of depression can be the result of a wide assortment of illnesses, including thyroid problems, viral infections, and other factors. 2) Deprex is an amino acid and homeopathic medicine for the treatment of depression that we have seen work well with our patients. It may be worth trying as long as the situation is "stable" and there is no suicidal thinking on the part of the depressed person. 3) Medications such as Prozac can be very helpful for more difficult cases. Consult your doctor. These medications are often prescribed by Family Practice Doctors, but in most cases ought to be monitored by Psychiatrists. 4) Increase intake of Protein somewhat. Use a protein powder supplement, just like a weight lifter. 5) Exercise daily. Just get out and walk for about 15 minutes. 6) Seek out counseling from someone who is good at treating depression. This can do a world of good for you. However, always use great wisdom and common sense when choosing a therapist. Some are good, and some are not, so choose wisely.

How to Cope With Depression After a Break Up With Your Partner

When the beautiful day ends, what follows is a dark night; when a love relationship breaks up, what follows is a long period of brooding, frustration and depression. If you have recently gone through this terrible experience of a break up, you must be upset, feeling an acute sense of loss and possibly spiraling into a period of acute depression. At a time when you should be concentrating on taking steps to revive the relationship or building up a new one, this depression can be devastating indeed. You need some constructive suggestions about how to steer clear of this break up depression.

First of all, you must be able to recognize the symptoms of this break up depression so that you know when they are serious enough to require professional help. Bio-chemically, depression occurs as a result of some chemical imbalances in the brain which may be brought about by several causes. A sudden, traumatic event is one of the most potent ones and can have very serious consequences for you.

Symptoms of break up depression are - an ever present fatigue, irritability over trifles, decreased appetite, a lowered interest in the things that pleased you or activities you enjoyed, and sleep disturbances. You are constantly haunted by an uneasy feeling that things will not change now, they will not be any better. These feelings are not uncommon in the normal course of life; most people experience these to, a greater or lesser extent, at some point in their life and recover without any professional help. However, if they are very strong, have begun to interfere with your normal life, or producing thoughts of taking some drastic step like harming yourself, then you do require professional help.

It is somewhat difficult for a person affected by break up depression to tell the symptoms of depression from the normal feelings of frustration and loss that usually accompany a break up. So ask your friends whether they think you have drastically changed from your normal self. Conversely, if some of your friend has recently broken up, see whether he or she sees to be completely different from what they used to be. If yes, it is certainly time to seek professional help.

Professional help may include counselling as well as medication. If you are put on medication, do not feel bad about it. It is as much normal to take anti- depressant or other medication for mental illnesses as for physical ones, and depression is nothing but a mental illness. In fact, you will be surprised if you get to know how many of your friends and acquaintances have taken anti-depressants at some or the other point in their life.

In the same way, do not feel bad about seeking help and support from your friends and people close to you in order to get through these difficult times. After all we deal with every other crisis in our life on the strength of our loved ones' support; so why not this?

At the same time take some other steps that would help you come out of it faster. If older pastimes no longer seem fun, try some new ones. Did you fancy joining some hobby class or a club earlier? Well, go ahead now. Find excuses to be out of the house with your fiends and things that require you to focus your mind on. Work your way out of depression in a health club on the treadmill, or doing any other exercise you prefer. Besides relieving stress, exercise will improve your health and appearance and knowing that you are now fitter and more beautiful than you were when you were in that ill-fated relationship, can work wonders with your mood.

So, don't confine yourself to your house brooding in despair if you have broken up recently; get professional help, seek the assistance of friends and loved ones, find new interests and activities and work to rejuvenate your health and shape up your figure. You will find after a few days that you are again fresh and vibrating with life.

Wednesday, December 18, 2013

The Words, Achievements, Honors and Legacies of Frederick Douglass Remain Indelibly Printed in Us

Frederick Douglass was perhaps the first black man who had such a long and arduous climb which took him from slavery to some of the highest positions in the land wielding considerable influence on not only the minds of many ordinary folks but also having much influence on Presidents. His name and legacies remain unforgettable as is seen in the many quotes attributed to him, the books written on him especially for children as well as the monuments to his honor.

Douglass served as an adviser to President Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War and fought for the adoption of constitutional amendments that guaranteed voting rights and other civil liberties for blacks. He provided a powerful voice then that was championing human rights. He is still revered today for his contributions against racial injustice

After the Civil War, Douglass held several important political positions such as President of the Reconstruction-era Freedman's Savings Bank; marshall of the District of Columbia, President of the Colored National Labor Union, Recorder of Deeds in Washington, minister-resident and consul-general to the Republic of Haiti (1889-1891), and chargé d'affaires for the Dominican Republic.

In 1872, he moved to Washington, D..C after his house on South Avenue in Rochester, New York burned down with him losing among other items a complete issue of The North Star.

In 1868, Douglass supported the presidential campaign of Ulysses S. Grant who upon assuming power had the Klu Klux Klan Act and the second and third Enforcement Acts signed into law. President Grant. used their provisions vigorously, suspending provisions for habeas corpus in South Carolina and sending troops there and into other states; under his leadership. Over 5,000 arrests were made.The Ku Klux Klan was thus dealt a serious and devastating blow. Though Grant's vigor in disrupting the Klan made him unpopular among many whites, it won him Frederick Douglass' and other black's praise. An associate of Douglass wrote of Grant that African-Americans will have and cherish a grateful remembrance of his name, fame and great services.

Douglass' climb to greatness took a symbolical turn upwards when as a mark of the high esteem in which he is held in 1872, he became the first African American to receive a nomination for Vice President of the United States, having been nominated to be Victoria Woodhull's running mate on the Equal Rights Party ticket without his knowledge. He neither campaigned for the ticket nor even acknowledged that he had been nominated.

Douglass spoke at many schools around the country in the Reconstruction era, including at Bates College in Lewiston, Maine in 1873.

In 1877, Douglass purchased his final home in Washington D.C., on the banks of the Anacostia River and named it Cedar Hill. He expanded the house from 14 to 21 rooms and included a china closet. One year later, Douglass expanded it further to 15 acres, with the purchase of adjoining lots. The home is now the location of the Frederick Douglass National Historic Site.

After the disappointments of Reconstruction, many African Americans, Exodusters, moved to Kansas to form all-black towns. Douglass spoke out against the movement, urging blacks to stick it out. But he was condemned and booed by black audiences.

In 1877, Douglass was appointed a United States Marshall and.then in 1881, he was appointed Recorder of Deeds for the District of Columbia.

His wife Anna Murray Douglas died in 1882, leaving him in a state of depression which was only assuaged with his association with the activist Ida B. Wells who brought meaning back into his life. In 1884, Douglass married Helen Pitts, a white feminist from Honeoye, New York, the daughter of Gideon Pitts, 1, an abolitionist colleague and friend. A graduate of Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, Pitts had worked on a radical feminist publication Alpha while living in Washington, D.C.. Frederick and Helen Pitts Douglass faced a storm of controversy as a result of their marriage, since she was white and nearly 20 years younger. Both families recoiled; hers stopped speaking to her; his was bruised, as they felt his marriage was a repudiation of their mother. But individualist feminist Elizabeth Cady Stanton congratulated the two.

The new couple traveled to England, France, Italy, Egypt and Greece from 1886 to 1887. In later life, Douglass in a determination to ascertain his birthday adopted February 14th because his mother, Harriet Bailey, used to call him her "little valentine". He was born in February of 1816 by his own calculations, but historians have found a record indicating his birth in February of 1818.

Douglass had five children; two of them, Charles and Rossetta, helped produce his newspapers. Douglass was an ordained minister of the African Methodist Episcopal Church

In 1892 the Haitian government appointed Douglass as its commissioner to the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition. He spoke for Irish Home Rule and on the efforts of Charles Stewart Parnell. He briefly revisited Ireland in 1886.

Until his death a quarter of a century later, Douglass used his great abilities to help his people achieve "a higher, broader and nobler mankind." In a multitude of capacities, Douglass contributed his energies towards that main purpose. He fought always for the dignity of his people, always emphasizing that exploitation against colored people was not a Negro problem but was in fact an American problem, or as he told the nation, "No man can put a chain about the ankle of his fellow man, without at last finding the other end of it fastened about his own neck."

He once wrote warning the American People that "the lesson which they must learn or neglect to do so at their own peril, is that Equal Manhood means Equal Rights, and that they must stand each for all and all for each, without respect to color or race....I expect to see the colored people of this country enjoying the same freedom, voting at the same ballot-box, using the same cartridge-box, going to the same schools, attending the same churches, traveling in the same street cars, in the same railroad cars, on the same steamboats, proud of the same country, fighting the same foe, and enjoying the same peace and all its advantages..."

But unfortunately Frederick Douglass did not live to see his hope realized.

On February 20, 1895, Douglass attended a meeting of the National Council of Women in Washington, D.C. during which he was brought to the platform and given a standing ovation by the audience, as if they knew that was his last public appearance. Shortly after returning home, he suffered a massive heart attack and died. He is buried in Mount Hope Cemetery in Rochester, New York.

But today, even after more than a century of his death, the people have learnt and indeed are learning the lessons he taught. All over the world millions of people of all races, colors, creeds, and nationalities are moving forward together to achieve victory, enduring peace, security and freedom.

Frederick Douglass' words have never been as significant as they are today after the war had raised the question of Negro rights in the most acute form. Their vast contribution in the war effort have made it clearer everyday that victory, lasting peace and security cannot be achieved without the Negro peoples and without satisfying their just demands.

Below are the emblems of his greatness and everlasting significance in the form of quotes, children's books and films on him as well as monuments:

Famous quotes from Douglass:

o "I am a Republican a black, dyed in the wool Republican, and I never intend to belong to any other party than the party of freedom and progress."

o "Those who profess to favor freedom and yet depreciate agitation, are men who want crops without plowing up the ground, they want rain without thunder and lightning. They want the ocean without the roar of its many waters."

o "To make a contented slave it is necessary to make a thoughtless one. It is necessary to darken the moral and mental vision and, as far as possible, to annihilate the power of reason."

o "I assert most unhesitatingly, that the religion of the South is a mere covering for the most horrid crimes - a justifier of the most appalling barbarity, a sanctifier of the most hateful frauds, and a dark shelter under which the darkest, foulest, grossest, and most infernal deeds of slaveholders find

o "Without struggle, there is no progress."

o "[Lincoln was] the first great man that I talked with in the United States freely who in no single instance reminded me of the difference between himself and myself, of the difference of color."

o "Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did, and it never will."

o "Once let the Black man get upon his person the brass letters US let him get an eagle on his button and a musket on his shoulder and bullets in his pockets and there is no power on earth which can deny that he has earned the right to citizenship in the United States."

Books on Douglass For Young Readers:

o Miller, William. Frederick Douglass: The Last Day of Slavery. Illus. by Cedric Lucas. Lee & Low Books, 1995.

o Weidt, Maryann N. Voice of Freedom: a Story about Frederick Douglass. Illus. by Jeni Reeves. Lerner Publications, 2001.

Documentary Films on Douglass:

o Frederick Douglass [videorecording] / produced by Greystone Communications, Inc. for A&E Network ; executive producers, Craig Haffner and Donna E. Lusitana.; 1997

o Frederick Douglass: when the lion wrote history [videorecording] / a co-production of ROJA Productions and WETA-TV ; produced and directed by Orlando Bagwell ; narration written by Steve Fayer.; c1994

o Frederick Douglass, abolitionist editor [videorecording] / a production of Schlessinger Video Productions, a division of Library Video Company ; produced and directed by Rhonda Fabian, Jerry Baber ; script, Amy A. Tiehel

o Race to freedom [videorecording] : the story of the underground railroad / an Atlantis Films Limited production in association with United Image Entertainment; produced in association with the Family Channel (US), Black Entertainment Television and CTV Television Network, Ltd. ; produced with the participation of Telefilm Canada, Ontario Film Development Corporation and with the assistance of Rogers Telefund ; distributed by Xenon Pictures ; executive producers, Seaton McLean, Tim Reid ; co-executive producers, Peter Sussman, Anne Marie La Traverse ; supervising producer, Mary Kahn ; producers, Daphne Ballon, Brian Parker ; directed by Don McBrearty ; teleplay by Diana Braithwaite, Nancy Trites Botkin, Peter Mohan. Publisher Santa Monica, CA : Xenon Pictures, Inc., 2001. Tim Reid as Frederick Douglass.

Memorials to Frederick Douglass:

o Frederick Douglas National Historic Site The Washington, DC home of Frederick Douglass

o Frederick Douglass Gardens at Cedar Hill Frederick Douglass Gardens development & maintenance organization

o The Frederick Douglass Prize A national book prize sponsored by The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History and The Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance and Abolition

Dealing with Depressed People

Depressed people are not the life of the party. They're often extremely difficult to be around. They're moody, non-communicative, grumpy and generally dismal. Although they are not fun to be around, they are suffering. So, if you can recognize that a loved one isn't acting normal, you should try to do what you can for them, even if it's an extremely tortuous endeavor.

How Do You Know Someone's Depressed?

The illness manifests itself in many different ways however, there are many different ways to tell if a person is suffering from depression. They tend to remove themselves socially. For example, if you have a friend who continually declines social invitations, that might be a red flag. They may also be busy, so make sure to have a conversation with them before unilaterally diagnosing them.

They may also change their eating or drinking habits. They may forget to eat. They may also eat too much. The same goes for drinking alcohol. A person may turn to alcohol to cope with their feelings of hopelessness. If you have a friend who starts drinking more than usual, that may be another signal.

Depressed people have a hard time sleeping. They may sleep too much, but they also may not sleep enough. This is an indicator that you might not notice unless you live with the person.

People who are deep in a depression might start calling in sick to work. This is because the thought of getting dressed, leaving the house and going through their daily routine is simply too much effort. Their feelings of despair are so deep that they can't even function. Extremely cases may start talking about suicide. If you hear someone make reference to ending their life, it's absolutely critical that you get them help.

Why Should I Spend Any Time with a Depressed Person?

If you know someone like this, you should spend as much time with them as you can. They tend to remove themselves socially. They think isolating themselves will make them feel better, but it actually makes them feel worse. Getting depressed people out of the house will help get them to start thinking about something other than their feelings.

Should You Take the Alzheimer's Test or Is It Just Forgetfulness?

Are you in your 50s or 60s and think you need to take an Alzheimer's test. You think your losing your memory because you misplaced your keys or you can't find your glasses? Don't panic here in the United States as the baby boomers are reaching their 60s Alzheimer's disease and dementia are growing concerns. If you're had personal experiences with a friend or family member who suffers from dementia, you are critically aware of what a monster this disease is.

Occasionally we all forget things; you can't remember the name of the person you were just introduced to. Perhaps you've misplaced your car keys again, can't find your glasses the moment you need them. You have to search for a word to complete a sentence. When driving you miss a turn going to a familiar place. These are not Alzheimer's signs it is simply normal forgetfulness. Despite what the family may think, it's not time to take an Alzheimer's test.

Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia are aggressively being researched to find a cure. Researchers have begun to unlock many causes of memory loss, where memories are stored and why we easily recall some information and not others. Alzheimer's tests are being developed and evaluated constantly.

Researchers have raised the challenge, and although a cure may be out there on the horizon. What can we do today to help ourselves? No matter what your age it's never too late to take steps to preserve your memory. Preventing memory loss must be easier than trying to restore it.

Memory issues concerned most of us at some point, but let's not panic. A certain degree or forgetfulness is to be expected as we age. You don't expect to have the heart and lungs of a 19-year-old when you're 60. Nor should you expect the rest of your organs not to have some age related wear and tear, your brain included.

So much of our concern about dementia and Alzheimer's disease may just be forgetfulness. Unfortunately as we age it's only natural to have concerns over memory loss. Here is a list of some common complaints that do not signal Alzheimer's disease or other dementia.

1. You have a hard time recalling the name of a colleague.
2. You're reading a good book and for a moment you can't recall the title.
3. At home you open the refrigerator and have no idea why.
4. You go to the mailbox only to remember you have already retrieved the mail.
5. You walk into a room and forget why.
6. You miss place common things, your keys, your eyeglasses.
7. A person's name is on the tip of your tongue, but you just can't remember it.

These few items and many more are simply signs of forgetfulness, and is a normal sign of aging. It's not time to subject your-self to Alzheimer's testing just yet.

Here's a list of signs of mild cognitive impairment;

1. Constantly misplacing items, even when you try to make a mental note of where you're placing them.
2. Frequently forgetting people's names, and are slow to recall them if at all.
3. You have difficulty choosing the right words when speaking.
4. You begin to forget important events, like doctor's appointments or meeting the kids at the bus stop.
5. Have trouble retaining newly learned information or news events you've just read in the paper.
6. When driving you are getting lost more often, and don't remember how to program the car's GPS.
7. Your family and friends began to notice your memory loss, and start showing concern. You may want to consider taking some Alzheimer's tests.

How Do I Recognize the Signs of Depression After a Break Up?

Many people suffer from depression after the loss of something. But how do you know if you are depressed or just experiencing the normal emotions following the loss of a relationship? Afterall, it's normal to cry, lose sleep, lose your appetite, feel guilty and sad after a break up, isn't it? So if these feelings are all normal how do you recognize the signs of depression after a break up?

Everyone will experience feelings of sadness and anger after a relationship breakup. It's when these feelings last for an extended period of time that they become more concerning. The timeframe may vary depending on who you talk to but typically if you have had these sad feelings or changes in behaviour, appetite, sleep patterns or lifestyle for more than a month then you may be experiencing depression.

Common signs of depression after a relationship break up are these: loss of interest in daily activities, loss of pleasure in activities formerly enjoyed, feelings of sadness, helplessness, or hopelessness, crying spells, sleeping too much or too little, trouble concentrating, difficulty making decisions, memory problems, increased or decreased appetite, unexplained weight gain or loss, restlessness, becoming easily annoyed, lack of energy on a daily basis, speaking in a slow, monotonous tone, feelings of guilt, less interest in sex, thoughts of death, and physical problems such as headaches or stomach problems.

As you can see the signs of depression are very similar to what most people would consider normal feelings and emotions that you would experience after breaking up with someone. It's really the time frame that defines depression after a break up. The longer these feelings last the more likely it is that you are suffering from depression. Because the signs and symptoms are similar you may not recognize them. If you do recognize them you may just figure they will go away on their own.

Once you have recognized the signs of depression after a break up there are simple steps you can take on your own to help overcome it. If these things don't work then it is advised that you seek the help of your medical doctor for advice in how to treat depression.