Monday, August 19, 2013

Non-Standardized Assessment Tests


* First developed and popularized in clinical settings by Monica McGoldrick and Randy Gerson

* Developed principally within the context of Murray Bowen's intergenerational family systems theory, genograms offer an efficient and effective process for explaining repetitive behaviors and patterns.

* Essentially, genograms are graphic representations of an individual's extended family that typically cross at least three generations.

* Use of genograms implies a respect for intergenerational family experiences as historical antecedents to contemporary areas of strength and difficulty.

* Most genograms include basic information about number of families, number of children in each family, birth order, and deaths. Some genograms include information on disorders running in the family such as alcoholism, depression, diseases, alliances, and living situations.

* Genograms reflect an individual's point of view. Although most members of a family agree on the basics of a family tree, there may be major differences when describing the relationships among family members.

* Interpretation is influenced by the creator of the Genogram. There is no absolute "right" Genogram for one family. Different family members may have differing perspectives on the relationships in the family and may therefore construct genograms of the same family very differently.

Scaling Questions

* Used primarily in Solution Focused Brief Therapy.

* Used to track differences and progress in the client.

* Helpful in prioritizing goals.

* Ranges of a scale can be defined each time a question is made.

* Typically they range from worst (zero) to the best (ten).

* Client may rate the same question repeatedly as therapy progresses.

* Client may be asked to identify times when they felt lower on the scale.

* Establishing goals or generating solutions comes from having the client identify what a higher score will look like for them and what they need to achieve it

* Strength focused questions include "What have you done to get to this (higher) score?" "What has stopped you from slipping one point lower down the scale?"

* Exception questions include "Have you ever been higher on the scale?" "What is different on the days when you are one point higher on the scale?" "How would tell you that it was a 'one point higher' day?" * Future focus questions include "Where on the scale would be good enough for you?" "What would a day at that point on the scale look like?"

Dimensions of Sexual Experience

* Trance State

* Akin to sensate focus activities.

* Introspective attention to one's kinesthetic cues of arousal.

* Individual becomes absorbed in sex.

* Role Enactment

o Playing out roles of sexual fantasies and/or scripts

o Successful role enactment is indicated by in-depth integration with role during sex.

o Minimal involvement is indicated by avoidance, disinterest, or "faking it" * Partner Engagement

o Profound personal meaning is found in the sexual involvement with the partner

o Ranges from appreciation to sense of mystical union.

o Characterized by a unique, loving bond.

Power Hierarchies - on being Needed and Wanted

* Wanting to be wanted - the individual searches for a reflected sense of self

* Not wanting to want - attempt to maintaining boundaries to protect the ego.

* Wanting to be wanted and gratified by not wanting to reciprocate - the individual is insecure about being exploited or abandoned and develops a narcissistic demand to be unilaterally gratified.

* Not wanting to be wanted - the individual avoids any reciprocity.

These power hierarchies develop in response to differentiation and object relations issues from childhood in family-of-origin. Marriage devises the opportunity to resolve family-of-origin issues and individual long term development/existential conflicts.

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